It was just an area that was located on the slopes of Vesuvius and very close to the coast, when the Oscans, an Italic population, founded the city.
Flanked by the river Sarno, on the one hand, and on the other the coast, Pompeii was a place of perfect life, easily defensible, had plenty of water, and the land was very fertile thanks to its rich volcanic soil.
After the conquest of various populations, in the 2 century B. C., it was conquered by the Romans, thank the strategic position it became an important maritime trading city, and was also the hub of all major roads for trade from all directions. In 62 A.D. the city suffered a violent earthquake that destroyed almost the entire city. By order of Nerone and the Senate of Rome, the city had to be rebuilt and then be reborn, but were about to finish the reconstruction of the town, and the work of widening and completion of the temples, when Vesuvius volcano, considered as inactive, in 79 AD explodes, destroying, with its all volcanic material everything that it met, terrorizing and hitting the surrounding area.
Flames and fire covered Pompeii, forming a thick and dense black cloud, also composed of noxious gas, which darkened the sun. Ash and lapilli since that time buried the city, making it a ghost town that until then was a rich community. Pompeii remained buried under meters of ash and lapilli and pumice stone until 1748 when Charles of Bourbon ordered the architect Domenico Fontana, the construction of a diversion channel of the river Sarno, and during the excavation of the work that they were found inscriptions and buildings with frescoed walls. With different techniques and types of excavation, many things found, as a miracle, intact, or they give the opportunity to see the grandeur of the city, such as the Forum.
The Historical experts, and archeological expert, studying the sites, have been able to determine several types of people who lived in Pompeii, by identifying them. Luxury villas with large gardens (Villa of the Mysteries, the House of the Faun). Constructed in Roman style, with furnishings which highlighted the style of class and family membership of the owner, showing off all their lust. And the income housing, inhabited by those who having nothing of lush, to highlight, did not care about the outward appearance.
The actual Pompeii was founded only after the building of the Sanctuary of Our Lady of the Rosary of Pompeii, in 1891, by Bartolo Longo after an apparition of the Virgin, in the church we can see seventeenth-century works by Luca Giordano.
Since 1997, Pompeii, thanks to the wonders that slowly re-emerge from the soil, is a World Heritage Site and is protected by UNESCO. Dominated by events that have made it a legendary city, immersed in an ocean of exhibits, and full of modernity, Pompeii is an archaeological site, absolutely must-see, because it is unique in the world.